Explore environmental careers.
Environmental law is a legal specialty that deals specifically with provincial and federal environmental legislation, for example the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. Environmental lawyers act as both advisors and legal advocates in the protection of the environment and natural resources. As advisors, they counsel clients on their legal rights and obligations with respect to the environment. As legal advocates, environmental lawyers can work for the prosecutor’s office or in private practice representing clients in criminal cases where charges have been laid as a result of environmental infractions.
At a glanceImagine you are in a quiet corner of the Province’s law library researching legal briefs and court transcripts. You are an environmental lawyer working for the Crown and you are looking for legal precedents to use at an upcoming hearing. The Province has brought charges against a chemical processing plant for alleged violations of its environmental operating approval licence. The Province granted the company an operating licence that allowed the plant to discharge treated effluent at a specific quantity into the river. Recent evidence shows the plant was discharging more effluent than its licence allowed. Now the Province wants to revoke the licence and fine the company to cover the cost of cleanup. Your job at the hearing will be to present the case to the court in a fair and impartial manner so the judge can decide if there is sufficient evidence to proceed with prosecution. As an environmental lawyer, you specialize in legal issues regarding provincial and federal environmental regulations. You have spent weeks preparing this case: gathering evidence, interviewing witnesses, and researching past court decisions. Because environmental law is such a new specialty, there aren’t many precedents or textbooks you can go to for help. But that just makes the job more interesting because you know that each case you try will be groundbreaking. At this hearing, you will have to show the judge that the defendant was discharging more effluent than its license allowed. You will introduce testimony from the provincial regulator who first discovered the offence, as well as company employees who will say they were instructed to discharge more effluent, even though it was above the legal limit. You will also call several investigators to the stand and present physical evidence to refute the company’s claim that it wasn’t discharging more than its limit. In order to demonstrate the seriousness of the transgression, there will also be testimony from an environmental toxicologist, an analytical chemist, and a fisheries biologist, who will all tell the court the damage that’s been done to the river ecosystem and how critical a thorough cleanup is. There’s a huge amount of information to consider in a case like this and it is your job to pull it all together and present it to the court.
Job dutiesDuties vary significantly from job to job, but the following list includes typical job duties one might encounter as an environmental lawyer:
- Assist investigators in the early stages of investigations where infractions are suspected.
- Review files to determine if there is sufficient evidence to proceed with prosecution and if the proposed prosecution is in public interest.
- Prepare disclosures and participate in pre-trial negotiations.
- Review operative and applicable legislation to determine the client’s/defendant’s rights, obligations, and duties.
- Draft pleadings and correspondence.
- Compile evidence and interview clients, witnesses, and persons of interest.
- Research legislation and court decisions.
- Develop cases and present them at trial.
- Provide legal and policy advice to regulatory and investigating agencies.
- Negotiate agreements with landowners and governments and between industry participants.
- Participate in public-interest lobbying and education campaigns.
Work environmentEnvironmental lawyers work in a variety of locations, including: In the office:
- Researching legal precedents and legislation
- Preparing briefs and trial documentation
- Communicating on the phone and in meetings with clients, government officials, colleagues, and experts in the field
- Meeting with clients to discuss cases
- Carrying out research and visiting sites
- Presenting at trials and hearings
Where to workThere are a number of places environmental lawyers can find employment. They include:
- Federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal governments
- Private law firms
- Environmental consulting firms
- Colleges, universities, and research institutes
- Large firms in other industries, for example oil and gas, mining, and manufacturing
- Insurance companies
- Not-for-profit, non-governmental, and international organizations
Education & requirementsIf you are a high school student considering a career as an environmental lawyer, you should have strong marks or an interest in:
- Social Studies
- Legal Studies
- Environmental Studies
- Environmental Science
- Business and Commerce
- Resource Management